The Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area in southern Africa was officially inaugurated in March 2012. Increasing recognition of the impediments created by man-made boundaries—along with greater understanding of the extent to which the health of adjacent ecosystems is interdependent—has catalyzed the formation of a number of such transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), or peace parks, in Africa and elsewhere around the world.
Extending across national borders, peace parks aim to facilitate cooperation between countries and remove physical impediments to wildlife that traverses their boundaries.
KAZA, as the area is known, sprawls for 444,000 square km (171,000 square miles) across the borders of Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Centred on the Okavango and Zambezi river basins, it encompasses some 36 protected regions, including more than a dozen national parks, as well as a variety of other reserves and wildlife-management areas.
It contains within its boundaries several of the gems of the African continent: Victoria Falls, a World Heritage site, and the Okavango delta, the largest site covered by the 1971 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands.
Big coup for the “big five”
Extending as it does across a massive swath of southern Africa, KAZA is home to unprecedented ecological diversity: salt pans and arid grassland, woodland and scrubland, seasonal wetlands and permanent marshes, among other biomes, are all found within its borders. Those areas support some 3,000 species of plants.
A host of wildlife inhabits this variegated terrain, with some species adapted only to one particular region and others moving between them as the seasons demand. The species are wide-ranging: more than 100 of fish, roughly 50 of amphibians, over 100 of reptiles, some 600 of birds, and nearly 200 of mammals can be found there.
Of the latter class, all of the iconic “big five” on tourists’ must-see lists are present: African elephants, critically endangered black rhinos, Cape buffalo, leopards, and lions. The vaunted status of these “charismatic megafauna,” combined with the fantastic diversity of their lesser-known brethren, is thought to have the potential to draw up to eight million tourists annually.
The expansive new confines are expected to be of particular benefit to African elephants: almost 50% of the total remaining wild population, some 325,000 animals, resides in northern Botswana, western Zimbabwe, and eastern Namibia. Particularly in Botswana, where culling was suspended in the 1990s, the population is unsustainable at its current size.
The hope is that—with the removal of barriers along the elephants’ ancestral migration routes, which stretched from eastern Angola into western Zimbabwe—the population, which is concentrated in Botswana’s Chobe National Park, will disperse into Zambia’s Kafue National Park and Angola’s Luiana National Park, where the elephant population is far smaller.
Many elephants have already returned to Angola following the end in 2002 of the Angolan civil war, during which an estimated 100,000 of the pachyderms were slaughtered for ivory to fund the conflict.
The success of the KAZA endeavour rests in large part on coordination with the communities residing within its borders. The area is home to an estimated 2.5 million people; less than a quarter of KAZA is completely devoid of human habitation. The KAZA organizers’ approach emulated Namibia’s community conservancy model, which had been established in the 1990s.
|Fast facts about KAZA:|
|Area of KAZA||444 000 sq. km|
|Countries it spreads across||Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe|
|Number of protected regions it encompasses||36|
Efforts in that country created thousands of stewardship jobs for residents, which served both to alleviate widespread poverty and to integrate the interests of conservation with those of the local population. Thus, decreases in poaching and more-sustainable harvesting of natural resources ensued as an influx of tourism dollars made clear the value of preserving the environment.
KAZA organizers hoped to build on extant conservancies in Namibia and several other member countries in establishing wildlife corridors through community-owned land.
Some observers, though, worried that enforcing new regulations and monitoring community programs would prove too unwieldy to manage. Although some Namibean parks had successfully recruited poachers and illegal land users to conservation efforts, critics cited poaching incidents—in which park rangers participated or were complicit—in Zimbabwean national parks as indicative of the challenges faced in winning locals to the cause.
Spotty infrastructure in some areas of KAZA led others to wonder if community efforts would even be able to draw the tourist dollars necessary to make them sustainable.
Origins of KAZA
The conservation area that became KAZA was discussed as early as 1993 by the Development Bank of Southern Africa, which in 1999 formalized the project, calling it the Okavango Upper Zambezi International Tourism Initiative.
Promoters of the project cited wording in, among other documents, the 1999 Southern African Development Community (SADC) Protocol on Wildlife Conservation and Law Enforcement in supplying the project with a mandate. (The protocol specifically cited an obligation to “promote the conservation of shared wildlife resources through the establishment of TFCAs.”) Two years later the project was adopted by the SADC—to which all five countries belonged—but lack of progress led SADC tourism ministers to relaunch it in July 2003 under its current name.
A December 2006 memorandum of understanding mapped out rough parameters for the conception of such a park. The president of each country signed a treaty formalizing the arrangement in August 2011 at the SADC summit in Luanda, Angola, and the area was formally inaugurated in 2012 at Katima Mulilo, Namibia.
A main secretariat was instituted in Kasane, Botswana, and satellite offices were established in each member country.
Date: 15 July 2013