Further to a recent article that we published, Yellow Fever : Zambia – South Africa issue resolved. We would like to clarify the situation has not yet been resolved after further investigation by our team, although there is some work that has been done. According to the information gathered the situation as of now remains as follows. If this situation should change, we will update you.
Health recommendation: CDC does not recommend yellow fever vaccine for most travellers to Zambia. However, you might consider this vaccine if you are staying a long time or will be heavily exposed to mosquitoes.
However if you leave Zambia and enter into South Africa, you are required to have had a Yellow Fever vaccination, and are required to show your certificate at port of entry. If you are not able to show your certificate proving you have had your YFV you will be denied entry into South Africa. Vaccination has to be proven in a vaccination certificate, which is valid 10 days after the vaccination and lasts for 10 years. In the situation where you are travelling back from Zambia via South Africa to your home country, you do not necessarily require a Yellow Fever Certificate if you are in transit. In this case, you will not be allowed to leave the airport.
However it is highly recommended that you get your Yellow Fever Vaccination done, in case of the unlikely situation where the airport has to be evacuated. Therefore it is advisable that you recieve the vaccination in case of emergency, and for your own health when travelling to Zambia.
Yellow fever is an infectious vector-borne disease that is caused by a virus transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito.
A traveler’s risk for acquiring yellow fever is determined by various factors, including immunization status, location of travel, season, duration of exposure, occupational and recreational activities while traveling, and local rate of virus transmission at the time of travel.
|Fast facts about Yellow Fever:|
|Yellow fever||Viral infection transmitted by a bite from infected mosquito|
|Estimated cases per year||200 000|
|Deaths each year||30 000|
|How does Yellow fever spread||From mosquitos to humans, humans cannot spread yellow fever among themselves|
|Initial Symptoms||Fever and yellowing of the skin, chills, flu-like symptoms (muscle aches, headache, vomiting)|
|Third phase symptoms||Jaundice, Hepatitis, Internal bleeding, Vomiting blood, Shock, Multisystem organ failure|
|Treatment||No cure for the viral infection itself, medical treatment focuses on symptoms instead|
Asymptomatic or clinically unapparent infection is believed to occur in most people infected with YFV. For people who develop symptomatic illness, the incubation period is typically 3–6 days. The initial illness presents as a nonspecific influenza like syndrome with sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, backache, myalgias, prostration, nausea, and vomiting. Most patients improve after the initial presentation. After a brief remission of hours to a day, approximately 15% of patients progress to a more serious or toxic form of the disease characterized by jaundice, hemorrhagic symptoms, and eventually shock and multisystem organ failure. The case-fatality ratio for severe cases with hepatorenal dysfunction is 20%–50%.
Treatment is for symptoms. Rest, fluids, and use of analgesics and antipyretics may relieve symptoms of fever and aching. Care should be taken to avoid certain medications, such as aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which may increase the risk for bleeding. Infected people should be protected from further mosquito exposure (staying indoors or under a mosquito net) during the first few days of illness, so they do not contribute to the transmission cycle.
Yellow fever vaccine is recommended for people aged ≥9 months who are traveling to or living in areas at risk for VFV transmission in South America and Africa. In addition, some countries require proof of yellow fever vaccination for entry.
Yellow fever vaccine entry requirements are established by countries to prevent the importation and transmission of YFV and are allowed under the IHRs. Travelers must comply with these to enter the country, unless they have been issued a medical waiver. Certain countries require vaccination from travelers arriving from all countries, while some countries require vaccination only for travelers coming from “a country with risk of yellow fever transmission”.
Country requirements are subject to change at any time; therefore, CDC encourages travelers to check with the appropriate embassy, consulate or doctor before departure.
Date: 25 June 2013